Where the works listed have been sold, the price shown is the final hammer price plus buyer's premium, if applicable. No GST is included in the prices shown.

Prices shown are supplied by the auction houses. Prices supplied by auction houses should only be for lots sold during the course of the auction. However we have no way of verifying this. In addition in the 1970's it was standard practice to list all hammer prices, both sold and unsold, in the published price list. Several smaller auction houses state that the prices shown in their prices realised list are 'Prices Realised or Highest Bids'.

Overseas sales prices have been converted to $Au. at the exchange rate prevailing at the date of the sale. Prices achieved in sales outside Australia are shown in brackets in the relevant foreign currency.

Where sales prices include the buyers premium, GST or value added style taxes if applicable are not included in the premium.

Further Information on the Buyer's Premium in Australia

In New South Wales, legislation allowing auctioneers to charge a buyer's premium was introduced on March 1st, 1993, and sales after that date by all auction houses listed reflect that premium.

In Victoria a buyer's premium is applicable to all sales listed for Sotheby's Australia Pty. Ltd. and Christie's Australia Pty. Ltd., and for Leonard Joel for all sales from 1990 onwards.

The buyer's premium where charged has been at the rate of 10%. however in November 1993 Sotheby's Australia Pty. Ltd. increased the buyers premium to 15% of the first $50,000 of the sale price, and 10% thereafter. Christies Australia Pty. Ltd. followed as from January, 1994.

Subsequently further changes, have been made to the amount charged as buyers premium. In some cases the buyers premium is at a stepped rate, based on the hammer price, while some auction houses quote a buyers premium inclusive of GST, as discussed below. The variety in the rates presently charged, precludes listing them in detail.

Further Information on the GST (Goods and Services Tax)

On July 1, 2000 a Goods & Services Tax (GST) at the rate of 10% was introduced in Australia. The GST is payable to the Australian Taxation Office on 'Supplies' (sales of goods and services) made by 'Registered Entities' (businesses). In the case of the auction houses, GST is payable in all cases by the purchaser on the buyers premium and by the vendor on the sellers commission. Where the vendor is registered for GST (a business). GST is payable on goods sold through auction, by the vendor, not by the auction house, There are two options available to the auction houses to pass on GST to the purchaser, if GST is payable on the item sold. Firstly, the auction may be conducted on a GST inclusive basis. In this case the GST, if applicable, is deemed to be included in the hammer price. Secondly, the auction may be conducted on a GST exclusive basis. In this case, GST, if applicable, is added on top of the hammer price, and the hammer price less seller's commission plus GST is passed back to the vendor. For all lots in a particular sale, an auction house will nominate the sale as either GST inclusive or GST exclusive.

This has made the comparison of Australian auction prices problematical. For GST exclusive sales, the price shown in the Australian Art Sales Digest, is the hammer price plus buyers premium exclusive of GST. For GST inclusive sales, again the hammer price plus buyers premium is shown. For GST inclusive sales, if the lot has been entered by a business there may be a "hidden" GST component included in the price. No attempt has been made to adjust GST inclusive hammer prices, to exclude the GST. In addition, several auction houses have quoted a buyers premium inclusive of GST. In these cases the buyers premium has been reduced by the amount of the GST.


All sizes shown are in centimetres, generally height followed by width.

Whilst every care is taken to confirm and record the accuracy of the information presented, John Furphy Pty. Ltd. cannot be responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information published.